Food intolerance in dogs has been on the rise in recent years, with an increase in cases among those who have suffered kidney disease or heart disease.
It has also become more common in people with diabetes, according to new research from the University of Aberdeen and the Scottish government.
The study, published in the British Journal of Veterinary Research, examined the vitamin K intake of 4,500 dogs between April and September 2016 and compared them to a similar group of dogs that did not have vitamin K deficiency.
A spokesman for the Scottish Government said: “As part of our work with Scottish Dog Foods Limited we are investing in the provision of a variety of dog food and food-related services to improve the lives of thousands of dogs.”
In the past two years, the number of cases of vitamin K toxicity has more than doubled, according the Scottish Dog Food Limited website.
The company said it has invested £30m in its vitamin K program to address the issue.